Automating Linux server installation promotes better security, stability, and performance through standardized setup, saves administrators' time, and decreases the chance of human mistakes. You can use Kickstart on Red Hat-based operating systems to create a custom boot configuration with just the software and options you want. Here's how to get Kickstart working with CentOS 6 installations.
In large deployments it's important to have a standard server setup to ensure that all servers are configured in the same fashion, with the same security mechanisms, filesystem layouts, and services running. Not only is this good practice, it's also a requirement for some government agencies and financial companies.
Kickstart uses a text file to answer all of the CentOS installer's questions. The file may live locally or over a network, so long as it's available during the installation. Because it uses the standard Anaconda installer, Kickstart can configure everything in a new installation, including hard disk partitioning, networking, and usernames and passwords.
A general good practice states that if your servers differ greatly throughout a deployment, the Kickstart configuration directives should specify only a minimal installation, which can be customized later for each server's specific needs. On the other hand, if the servers you're deploying are similar (as in the case of, for instance, a web hosting company with cloned virtual machines) you can adjust Kickstart's directives to handle a complete installation.
Even in the most homogeneous deployments not all servers have the same basic setup, down to such details as hostnames and network addresses. That's why Kickstart has powerful options for specifying custom scripts in the pre- and post-installation processes that can do things like prompt for each server's IP address and hostname.
There are a few ways to create a Kickstart installation file. First, such a file is created automatically after each new CentOS installation, and can be found at /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. This file contains all the information about the new installation and can be reused for new installations. It can be a good starting point if you need to clone an existing server.
Another way to create and edit the Kickstart file is by using the graphical tool found in the CentOS menu tree under Applications -> System Tools -> Kickstart. Its options are divided in sections via a menu in the left pane, as follows:
A sample Kickstart file might look like this:
#Simple Kickstart Configuration for a minimal installation#Adjusted by Anatoliy Dimitrov# Firewall configurationfirewall --disabled# Install OS instead of upgradeinstall# Use CDROM installation mediacdromrepo --name="centos" --baseurl=file:///mnt/source --cost=100# Root password – 'testpass', encryptedrootpw --iscrypted $1$pcafN9bo$lueZDdCQMz8fc/brhDa1J1# Network information. Later we'll adjust it.network --bootproto=static --device=eth0 --gateway=188.8.131.52 --ip=184.108.40.206 --nameserver=220.127.116.11 --netmask=255.255.255.0 --onboot=on# System authorization informationauth --useshadow --passalgo=sha512 --enablefingerprint# Use text mode installtext# System keyboardkeyboard us# System languagelang en_US# SELinux configurationselinux --disabled# Do not configure the X Window Systemskipx# Installation logging levellogging --level=info# System timezonetimezone America/New_York# System bootloader configurationbootloader --append="crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet" --location=mbr --driveorder="sda"# Clear the MBR. Helps avoid problems with MBR.zerombr# Partition clearing informationclearpart --all %post#Here we will specify add a script later for changing the static IP of each new installation by accepting input%end%packages@base@core@server-policy%end
This file tells Kickstart to perform a complete, automatic installation with a minimum of software packages.
To invoke Kickstart, you specify a Kickstart file in the installation media boot options with the parameter ks. To change this parameter at boot time you have to press Tab in the first installation menu, where the installer asks whether it's going to be a graphical or text-mode installation. You can then edit the boot options and add a Kickstart parameter. Here are a few possible scenarios:
One of the most useful features in Kickstart is its ability to use pre- and post-installation scripts. Consider the previous simple Kickstart file. By default all of its installations will have an IP address of 18.104.22.168, which is obviously not a good practice. Instead, you can ensure that each new installation has a unique IP address by running a post-installation script that takes user input:
#!/bin/sh#Switch to virtual terminal 3 so that user's input is acceptedchvt 3exec < /dev/tty3 > /dev/tty3#Get the inputecho "Please specify IP address:"read ip#Substitute with sed the hardcoded IP address with the one we've specifiedsed -i "s/1\.1\.1\.111/$ip/" /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0#Switch back to virtual terminal 1 for the installation to finishchvt 1exec < /dev/tty1 > /dev/tty1
Kickstart performs an installation in a similar way to a manual one, installing and configuring everything for the server's specific environment. Because of this, its installation process is slower than just copying the files of a Linux system would be.
As an alternative to Kickstart, you can use the files and filesytem image of an operating system in a few possible ways. The simplest option is to use the common Linux program dd:
dd if=/dev/sda of=/media/backup_device/sda_image.img
This command creates an exact image of the sda hard disk to a backup device. Because the dd command works on the byte level, it copies all partition information, along with the master boot record, thus ensuring that you can restore this image (again with dd) on a similar server and have the same server installation there.
You can simplify installations even further in virtual environments. In VMware, for instance, the datastores hold the guest operating system disks as simple files, which means the fastest way to clone a machine is to just copy its datastore directory. You can then create a new virtual machine, specifying for a hard disk the copied vmdk file. For a more sophisticated way of doing this, use the VMware Export / Import template. This feature ensures better compatibility in case you'd like to install the same template on a different VMware server.
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